Founded May 17, 1642, by Chomedy de Maisonneuve. Champlain had selected the site thirty-one years before, as adapted to a settlement. With Maisonneuve, at the historic ceremony which gave birth to the future city of Canada, were Montmagny, governor of Quebec, Vimont, superior of the Jesuits, Madame de la Peltrie, and Mademoiselle Mance. Several years later another heroic woman, Marguerite Bourgeoys, joined the builders of the infant town. In 1653 colonization began in earnest, and in 1667 Montreal counted a population of 766. Its later history has been largely one of material progress.
   Index: Hd Lévis at, 34; Amherst prepares to capture, 36, 37; surrender of, 38; Haldimand takes possession of, 39; Gage at, 40; under martial law, 41; Haldimand improves roads to, 45, 46; change of command at, 53; enlistment of French-Canadians in, 55-56; difficulties of government, 60; Tryon at, 91; surrenders to rebels, 111; trade with upper lakes, 124, 140; rebel spies in, 130, 274, 278; Sulpician priests deported from, 181; Haldimand visits, 186; rebel prisoners at, 187, 250; census taken, 190; postal service in, 193; its people present loyal addresses, 225; schools of, 233, 235, 236; North West Company formed at, 261; Indians in, 266; first printing press in, 276; the Riedesels at, 300; MacLean at, 306; old burying-ground in, 345. T Transaction connected with its bonds causes defeat of Taché government, 69. L Church erected at, 84; foundation stone laid by De Courcelles, 88; completion of edifice, 89; description of, 89. F Hôtel Dieu established by Mlle. Mance, 29; beginnings of, 33; settlement in danger of extinction, 38; population in 1666, 56; Frontenac's arrival at, on his way to Cataraqui, 76; description of, 77; expedition from Albany against, 268; great rejoicings at, on arrival of trading canoes from the lakes, 324. E Public reception to Elgin, 41; riots at, in opposition to Rebellion Losses Bill, 73-74, 77, 78, 79; ceases to be seat of government, 78; Elgin's reference to, in his farewell address, 204. B Election methods in 1844, 25. Dr British residents of, dissatisfied with Quebec Act, 79; king's bust at, disfigured, 82; British at, with few exceptions, refuse to serve against Americans, 88; gaiety in, during winter of 1776-1777, 162. BL Sir Charles Bagot's public reception there, 118; Sydenham's gerrymander, 146; original boundaries restored, 146; aspires to be chosen as capital, 181; its population, etc., in 1843, 181; Dr. Taché on, 181; opposition in Upper Canada to its selection as capital, 182-183; resolution carried recommending it for capital, 182-183; MacNab's and Draper's opposition, 183; gerrymandered by government, 1844, and elects two supporters of government, 252; becomes capital, 254; address of welcome to Elgin, 275; returns La Fontaine in elections of 1848, 279; riots in, over Rebellion Losses Bill, 305, 322-325. Sy Charter of, reëstablished, 255; change in electoral limits of, 285; two members assigned to, 285. Bk Description and early history of, 99, 100; centre of fur trade, 100. Md Ceases to be seat of government after the riots, 28, 29; issues Annexation Manifesto in 1849, 39, 40. S The entrepôt between Britain and Upper Canada, 109. C Cartier warns people of the importance to city's welfare of means of transportation, 47; urged as terminus of Canadian Pacific Railway, 52. See also Ville Marie; Mount Royal.
   Bib.: Dollier de Casson, Histoire du Montreal, 1640-1672; Morin, Le vieux Montreal; McLennan, Anciens Montrealais ("Canada Français," vol. 3); Bosworth, Hochelaga Depicta; Sandham, Ville-Marie; Warburton, Hochelaga; Leblond de Brumath, Histoire Populaire de Montreal; Lighthall, Montreal after Two Hundred and Fifty Years; McLennan, Montreal, 1642-1842, and Dawson, Montreal, 1842-1892 in the Semi-centennial Report of the Montreal Board of Trade. See alsounder Maisonneuve; Jean-Jacques Olier; Marguerite Bourgeoys; Mademoiselle Mance; Jeanne Le Ber; Madame d'Youville; and in publications of the Soc. Hist. de Montreal, Quebec Literary and Historical Society, and Royal Society of Canada. Contemporary descriptions are found in narratives of Kalm, Lambert, and Landmann.

The makers of Canada. 2014.

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